PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND EXERCISE PARTICIPATION DURATION OF ANTENATAL MOTHERS
This study assessed the duration of physical activities and exercises (PAE) participation of women attending five antenatal care services in Ghana. Descriptive survey method was used. Six hundred mothers, between 12-32 weeks of gestation, able to speak and read Twi, Hausa, English luaguages and without record of major medical or obstetric complications were recruited using convenience sampling technique. A structured and validated questionnaire designed to elicit self-reported reponse on the time spent during PAE per day was used.
[ 2 ] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (2011). Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, February 16, http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/everyone/health/
[ 3 ] Chambliss, H. O., Clapp, J. F., Dugan, S. A., Hatch, M. C., Lovelady, C. A., Mottola, M. F., & Williams, M. A. (2006). Impact of physical activity during pregnancy and postpartum on chronic disease risk. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(5), 989–1006. doi:10.1249/01.mss.0000218147.51025.8a
[ 4 ] Jukic, A. M. Z., Evenson, K.R., Daniels, J.L, Herring, A.M., Wilcox, A.J., & Hartmann, K. E. (2013). A prospective study of the association between vigorous physical activity during pregnancy and length of gestation and birthweight. NIH Public Access : Matern Child Health Journal, 16(5), 1031–1044. doi:10.1007/s10995-011-0831-8.A
[ 5 ] Karageorghis, C.I., Vencato, M.M., Chatzisarantis, N.L.D., & Carron, A. (2005). Development and initial validation of the Brunel lifestyle physical activity questionnaire. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 12(5), 1–8. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2004.014258
[ 6 ] Mbada, C.E., Adebayo, O.E., Adeyemi, A.B., Arije, O.O., Dada,O.O., Olabisi A. Akinwande, O.A., Awotidebe,T.O. and Alonge, I.A. (2014). Knowledge and Attitude of Nigerian Pregnant Women towards Antenatal Exercise: A Cross-Sectional Survey. ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 2014, Article ID 260539, 8pages, doi:10.1155/2014
[ 7 ] Nyarko, P., Birungi, H., Armar-Klemesu, M., Arhinful, D., Deganus, S., Odoi-Agyarko, H. and Brew, G. (2006). Acceptability and Feasibility of Introducing the WHO Focused Antenatal Care Package in Ghana. Available online @ http://www.popcouncil.org/uploads/pdfs/frontiers/FR_FinalReports/ghana_who_anc.pdf
[ 8 ] Ouzounian, J. G., & Elkayam, U. (2012). Physiologic Changes During Normal Pregnancy and Delivery. Cardiology Clinics, 30(3), 317–329. doi:10.1016/j.ccl.2012.05.004
[ 9 ] Ribeiro, C.P. and Milanez, H. (2011). Knowledge, attitude and practice of women in Campinas, S˜ao Paulo, Brazil with respect to physical exercise in pregnancy: a descriptive study,” Reproductive Health, 8(1): 31
[ 10 ] Silversides, C. K., & Colman, J. M. (2011). Physiological changes in pregnancy (pp. 6–17).
[ 11 ] U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services. (2008). 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans: Contents. hhs.gov.